The surveillance and control programme for bonamiosis and marteiliosis in European flat oysters, Ostrea edulis, and blue mussels, Mytilus sp. in Norway in 2018
MetadataVis full innførsel
The surveillance programme is carried out by the Institute of Marine Research according to a contract with the Norwegian Food Safety Authority. Samples were collected from four wild beds, two mussel farms and one oyster farm. Samples were collected in April/May and in October, in order to be able to detect Bonamia sp. and Marteilia sp. during the periods when the potential prevalence could be at the highest. No abnormal mortalities were observed in oyster populations during the surveillance. Bonamia ostreae / B. exitiosa were not detected. The results may be used as a background for an application for disease free status for Norwegian flat oysters. There have been several reports on mortality or “disappearance” of mussels along the Norwegian coast. The reason(s) for the mortalities have not been determined. However, the parasite Marteilia sp. was detected for the first time in mussels, Mytilus edulis at Bømlo, western Norway, collected during the surveillance programme in 2016. This has been followed up with an extended survey in the IMR research project Mussel mortalities (83737-04). We have performed transmission experiments that identify the time period of infection and the progress of the infection in mussels. Analyses of samples collected in July 2018 indicate that the parasite may be present in an abandoned oyster lagoon at Espevik, Tysnes. The results from the research project indicate that the Marteilia sp detected is limited to mussels. Flat oysters at the same site do not become infected. This is relevant to the listing of susceptible hosts for Marteilia spp. A genetic study of Marteilia spp. from the UK, Sweden and the present site at Aga has been included in a study in the EU-project VIVALDI. The name Marteilia pararefringens has been proposed, and there is strong evidence that Marteilia refringens and Marteilia pararefringens sp. nov. are distinct parasites of bivalves and have different European distributions. After the detection of M. pararefringens in mussels, it is important to obtain more data from mussels along the Norwegian coast. Mussels from Trøndelag in 2018 represented the first samples from mussels north of Bergen. In order to obtain a better set of data, we propose an extended surveillance that could be obtained through a revised surveillance progamme combined with a new model for health control in mollusk farms.