Differential production of prostaglandins and prostacyclins by liver and head kidney cells from Atlantic salmon challenged with arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionFish & Shellfish Immunology Reports. 2021, . 10.1016/j.fsirep.2021.100015
Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids are the precursors of eicosanoid metabolites (e.g prostaglandins and prostacyclins) which regulate inflammatory and immune response processes in fish organs. The present research studies the differential production of PGI2, PGI3, PGE2 and PGE3 by primary liver and head kidney cells isolated from salmon and challenged with single or combined ARA and/or EPA. There was a significant increase in the production of PGE2 and PGI3 in both types of cells after exposure to single and combined fatty acids. Increased production of PGE3 was only detected in liver cells after exposure to ARA+EPA. The levels of PGI2 in liver cells were significantly increased after exposure to all the tested fatty acid systems, while the production levels in head kidney cells were only significant after exposure to ARA or ARA+EPA, but not to EPA, where the production was non-significantly decreased compared to the control cells. In general, liver cells synthetized higher prostaglandin levels than prostacyclins, and the opposite was observed in head kidney cells, which synthetized highly remarkable amounts of prostacyclin compared to liver cells. The overall production for both types of cells and various fatty acid systems were characterized by a high proportion of the omega-3 fatty acid metabolites (PGE3+PGI3) compared to the omega-6 counterpart (PGE2+PGI2). Some potential production mechanisms are proposed and comprehensively discussed. The results of the present research are the first to deliver the differential production of prostacyclins and prostaglandins by liver and head kidney cells from salmon, thereby paving the way for understanding the significance of these prostanoids in fish physiology and disease.