|dc.description.abstract||After substantial investments in research, the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus
is now being cultivated commercially in Norway, Iceland, Scotland and Canada. As with other
domesticated species, disease problems have been experienced. This review summarizes the current
state of knowledge of diseases of the Atlantic halibut, and their diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment.
In economic terms, the most important losses have been suffered at the larval and juvenile stages.
The most important infections are caused by nodaviruses, causative agents of Viral Encephalopathy
and Retinopathy (VER), which are the major reason why Norway’s production of halibut fry has been
level since 1995. An aquatic birnavirus, Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus, is also an important
agent of mortality. Vibrio anguillarum, Flexibacter ovolyticus and atypical Aeromonas salmonicida
are the major bacterial pathogens. The protozoan parasites recorded include Ichthyobodo sp., the
microsporidium Enterocytozoon sp., Trichodina hippoglossi, and the metazoan pathogens include
myxozoans, helminths, Entobdella hippoglossi, Lepeophtheirus hippoglossi and other parasitic copepods.
Experimental vaccines have been tested against V. anguillarum and atypical A. salmonicida,
with good results. A recombinant vaccine against nodaviruses is under development. A few trials
have been carried out on non-specific immunostimulants, but no such treatment is currently available.
A number of efficacy and pharmacokinetic trials with various antibacterial agents have also