Indel locations are determined by template polarity in highly efficient in vivo CRISPR/Cas9- mediated HDR in Atlantic salmon
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionScientific Reports. 2020, 10 . 10.1038/s41598-019-57295-w
Precise gene editing such as CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homology directed repair (HDR) can increase our understanding of gene function and improve traits of importance for aquaculture. This fine-tuned technology has not been developed for farmed fish including Atlantic salmon. We performed knock-in (KI) of a FLAG element in the slc45a2 gene in salmon using sense (S), anti-sense (AS) and double-stranded (ds) oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) templates with short (24/48/84 bp) homology arms. We show in vivo ODN integration in almost all the gene edited animals, and demonstrate perfect HDR rates up to 27% in individual F0 embryos, much higher than reported previously in any fish. HDR efficiency was dependent on template concentration, but not homology arm length. Analysis of imperfect HDR variants suggest that repair occurs by synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA), as we show for the first time in any species that indel location is dependent on template polarity. Correct ODN polarity can be used to avoid 5′-indels interrupting the reading frame of an inserted sequence and be of importance for HDR template design in general.