|A wide range of raw materials are now used routinely in aquaculture feeds throughout the world, primarily to supply protein and energy in the form of lipid from edible oils. Protein meals and oils used can generally be divided into those of plant or animal origin and many have considerable potential to supply the required dietary nutrients required by aquaculture species. However, the use of any raw material introduces a suite of risks that need to be considered to enable the production of safe, sustainable and functional feeds to underpin this sector. A lack of understanding of some of those risks can result in failure of dietary specifications being met and/or negative nutritional elements being introduced (e.g. antinutritional factors). Importantly, it is this feed that when fed to food‐producing animals is such an important element of food safety, and as such any undesirable aspects relating to feed production can also have a negative impact on the rest of the food chain. However, there is some disparity internationally among raw materials that are used and the perceptions surrounding the risk of their use. It is the scientific assessment of these risks that is the basis of this review.