Fish-derived proteins and their potential to improve human health
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionNutrition reviews. 2019, 1-12. 10.1093/nutrit/nuz016
Emerging evidence from studies evaluating the effect of lean fish consumption in humans suggests that proteins from fish have several beneficial metabolic effects. Rest, or waste, material from the fishing industry contains high-quality proteins, and utilization of this material offers novel possibilities for the development of protein-containing products that might be beneficial for human consumption. Fish-derived peptides containing bioactive amino acid sequences suggested to beneficially influence pathways involved in body composition, hypertension, lipid profile, and regulation of glucose metabolism are of particular interest, although the results of published studies are conflicting. This review aims to summarize current knowledge from animal studies and clinical interventions in humans evaluating the effects of lean fish, fish proteins, and fish-derived peptides on outcomes related to metabolic health. Fish proteins have a high content of taurine, and animal trials suggest that taurine mediates some of the beneficial effects observed thus far, although the mechanisms by which fish peptides exert their action are not yet elucidated. At this time, the literature is inconsistent, and there is insufficient mechanistic evidence to support a beneficial effect of fish-derived peptides on metabolic health.