Choline supplementation increased total body lipid gain, while surplus methionine improved growth and amino acid retention in adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionAquaculture Nutrition. 2017, 23 (5), 1086-1094. 10.1111/anu.12476
Methionine–choline-deficient (MCD) mammals are known to accumulate liver TAG probably due to phosphatidylcholine (PC) deficiency and thus assembly of VLDL and transport of lipids from liver to peripheral organs. To assess whether supplementation of choline could spare methionine and secure a healthy liver metabolism, by reducing the endogenous PC synthesis without interfering with lipid transport and distribution, Atlantic salmon with initial BW of 700 g were fed adequate (1.9 g Met/16 gN) or surplus methionine (2.5 g Met/16 gN) diets of which were supplemented with choline or not for a period of 19 weeks. Fish fed the low-methionine diets had reduced growth (p = .013) due to reduced protein gain (p = .007), while lipid gain slightly improved in fish fed the choline-supplemented diets (p = .047). Also, feed conversion improved when fed surplus methionine (p < .001), while choline supplementation had no impact on feed conversion. No interaction between choline and methionine on growth performance or retention existed. Phospholipid status in liver and muscle was not affected by treatments, and no liver TAG accumulation occurred at the methionine levels used. Gene expression of ApoB100 necessary for assembling VLDL or pemt necessary for endogenous PC synthesis was unaffected by treatments. Capacity of methylation (MAT, BHMT) within the liver was not affected by treatment nor was the gene expression of enzymes in liver transsulfuration (CBS or CDO). Methionine status within liver was unaffected by treatments, while free methionine reduced in those fish fed the low-methionine diets in muscle and plasma. Cystathionine and taurine were elevated when fed surplus methionine. Choline supplementation had no impact on sulphur amino acid metabolites in either tissue. Neither did choline supplementation improve TAG mobilization from liver to muscle. To conclude, choline does not improve endogenous phospholipid synthesis or transport of TAG from liver to muscle depot when added to diets containing 1.9 g Met/16 gN, while surplus methionine improved growth and protein retention, indicating that 1.9 g Met/16 gN is enough to support a healthy liver metabolism, but too low to support muscle protein deposition in adult salmon fed high plant protein diets for longer periods of time.