PAH and biomarker measurements in fish from condition monitoring in Norwegian waters in 2005 and 2008
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Condition monitoring in fish from open seas are performed in Norway every third year. The objectives are to investigate whether fish from Norwegian seas contain elevated levels of components that originate from discharges from the petroleum activity. We present results from the samplings in 2005 and 2008 from four areas: The Egersund Bank (reference area North Sea), Tampen, the Halten Bank and the Barents Sea (reference area). NPD and PAH measured in fish muscle in 2005 were found to be below LOQ for all regions. In 2008 sum NPD were measured in haddock liver and found to be low for all regions (8-34 ng/g wet weight). Bile metabolites from haddock were measured by GCMS in 2008. The main contributor to sum PAH metabolites at Tampen and at the Egersund Bank was 1-hydroxy phenanthrene with levels of 510±814 and 133±207 ng/g bile, respectively. Levels of this metabolite in haddock from the Halten Bank and the Barents Sea were 43±71 and 19±14 ng/g bile, respectively. Levels of alkylphenols were found below LOQ. Levels of Vtg in blood of male cod were generally low from all regions. Measurements of DNA adducts in fish liver did not show changes for cod and saithe, while a significant increase were observed in haddock from Tampen compared to haddock from the Egersund Bank. Lipid content in the liver was significantly reduced in haddock from Tampen. Fatty acid profiles showed that haddock from Tampen had relatively high levels of arachidonic acid, and the ratio between omega-3 and omega-6 ((n-3)/(n-6)) poly unsaturated fatty acids were significantly lower in neutral lipids, free fatty acids and phosphotidylcholine/phosphotidylethanolamine, compared with haddock from the other regions.